Antigen recognition by T-cells - Know your basics!
🤔What are Lymphocytes?
Lymphocytes are basically White Blood Cells (WBCs), that form a very important part of the immune system. Lymphocytes help craft immune responses.
T lymphocytes are further divided into:
CD4+ T cells or Helper T cells
CD8+ T cells or Cytotoxic T cells
Regulatory T cells
While T cells are involved in cell mediated immunity, B cells are involved in humoral immunity.
While we read a lot about how the immune cells, especially T-lymphocytes (T-cells) play an important role in inflammation and other immune functions…
…🤔have you ever wondered how T-cells actually recognize antigens?
Did you know T lymphocytes cannot directly recognize or be activated by antigens on microbes or those that are extra-cellular in circulation?
They are rather programmed to be able to recognize antigens that are presented to them by antigen presenting cells (APC) like B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells or other nucleated cells.
Very specifically, T-cells require peptides derived from these antigens to be presented along with certain cell surface molecules called MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) molecules.
This is an interesting phenomenon, that T-cells are dependent on APC and other nucleated cells to process antigens.
It is a prerequisite to have an awareness/knowledge of the basics of General Pathology, in order to better comprehend the pathology of oral diseases. The basics would immensely improve your understanding of Oral Pathology and Medicine. This could help you in two ways.
If and when you are preparing for NEET/NBDE/NDBE (or any entrance exam for that matter), an understanding of basics would immensely benefit you.
What if you want to specialize in Oral Pathology? I tell you from experience, the basics of (General) Pathology would go a long way in making you a competent Oral Pathologist.
💡I say this because I have seen so many students without a sound understanding of basic Pathology (heck even Oral Pathology), struggling to understand concepts in Oral Pathology. The same goes for histology, both (general and oral), but that topic is for another blog post! I know these subjects can be very difficult to comprehend. I get it. That’s why I try to make stuff lighthearted, so they are easier to understand :)
Actually you could just scroll down👇 and watch the video to know more. Honestly, the visuals will help you understand better :) The concepts around lymphocytes or immunology itself as a whole, is quite a subject to understand. I know, its tough. But let me tell you, immunology is one of the most fascinating subjects I have come across, and a sound understanding it would help you a long way. I had great fun making this video. I bet you’ll love it.
📽 Watch the video!
🔎You could dig deeper into the topic
If ever, you want to go deep into this topic - Antigen recognition by T-cells and get access to the script of this video, we have some great notes, all of which are available on our Revision Ninja - Oral Pathology and Medicine Course bundle!
Antigen recognition by T-cells - Video available on YouTube for free, Video & Notes available on our website
📝Other basic topics in HackDentistry
Common histopathology terms (Note with sketches)
Inclusion bodies and modified cells in diseases (Table)
Stratified squamous epithelium (Note & Video)
Lymphocytes (Note & Video, video also available on YouTube)
Inflammation (Note & Video, video also available on YouTube)
Mediators of Inflammation (Note & Video, video also available on YouTube)
Mediators of Inflammation - Vasoactive amines and Eicosanoids (Note)
Apoptosis (Note & Video, video also available on YouTube)
Phagocytosis (Note & Video, video also available on YouTube)
Type I Hypersensitivity (Note & Video, video also available on YouTube for free)
Type II Hypersensitivity (Note & Video, video available on YouTube for free)
Type III Hypersensitivity (Note & Video video available on YouTube for free)
Type IV Hypersensitivity (Note & Video, video available on YouTube for free)
Apart from Notes, you could also get access to numerous MCQs and Videos with English captions/subtitles on various topics in Oral Pathology and Medicine.
📚Other study resources on HackDentistry!
And hey, by the way, please do give HackDentistry a shout-out to your friends and colleagues, would you? Would really appreciate it! Cheers and happy reading :)
Dr.Sanketh from HackDentistry