Syphilis - Highlights
Syphilis is an infection caused by anaerobic, spirochete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. It could also be transmitted through blood transfusion and to a fetus via an infected mother.
📝Here are some "Highlights" or a high level overview of Syphilis
The lesion in primary syphilis is a painless, indurated ulcer, appearing at the point of contact or site of bacterial (T.pallidum) entry. This is called a "chancre".
Chancres and mucous patches (oral lesions occurring in the secondary stage) are highly infectious, as they contain a vast number of organisms.
The secondary stage is characterized by the appearance of a widespread "maculopapular rash" - multiple (macules and papules) eruptions appearing on the skin (and sometimes in the oral cavity).
A characteristic lesion occurring in the oral cavity (during the secondary stage) is a "mucous patch".
These mucous patches may fuse or coalesce to give rise to a serpiginous or snail track pattern.
Lues Maligna is a severe and widespread form of secondary syphilis usually occurring in patients with a compromised immune system, like patients suffering from AIDS.
Patients in the tertiary stage of syphilis mainly develop CVS and CNS abnormalities.
Another characteristic lesion in tertiary syphilis is the appearance of multiple granulomatous lesions called "gumma". It affects the skin, oral cavity and many other internal organs.
Gumma could lead to the perforation of the palate.
Sometimes, the tongue papillae on the dorsal tongue could get atrophied and become erythematous. This is called leutic glossitis.
Hutchinson triad includes -> 1) Hutchinson teeth (incisors and molars affected), 2) Interstitial keratitis (inflammation of cornea), 3) 8th nerve deafness.
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